Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Forensics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Forensics - Essay Example From a humble beginning during the 19th Century without much data support to prove its credibility and usefulness, it has now evolved as an empirical and objective science on its own merits and rights. Over the years, it was discovered, perhaps by accident, way back in 1868, by a Swiss biologist called Friedrich Meischer when he was differentiating nucleus properties in pus cells. Since then, DNA profiling has come a long way and has been used to provide due judicial process of justice in many criminal and non criminal cases. Alec Jeffreys and colleagues researching DNA fingerprinting at the University of Leicester arrived at certain startling facts (at that period of history) regarding the fact that â€Å"individual differences in based on repeat sequences in DNA.† Do occur that could help in criminal investigation. (Johnson & Williams, 2006). Further it was also seen that â€Å"The possibility of deriving DNA from the ‘abandoned property’ of criminal suspects left at crime scene generated huge interest amongst police investigators.† and could even assist result in cracking major criminal cases, where the perpetrators could remain at large due to lack of incriminating evidence against them. (Johnson & Williams, 2006, para.18). Since then, there have been many improvements in determining the speed, efficacy and conclusiveness of DNA profiling and its impact upon society as a composite and complete science. Over time dedicated DNA Scientific Research Centers have also been operationalised to aid and abet solving of social and criminal issues through the deployment of DNA profiling. These efforts have also met with a reasonable degree of success such that DNA fingerprinting has now come to represent a major scientific and anti-criminal breakthrough in recent times. DNA tests have also proved conclusive evidence in absolving innocent suspects who were languishing in jail accused on

Monday, January 27, 2020

Corporate Social Responsibility In British Airways Management Essay

Corporate Social Responsibility In British Airways Management Essay Introduction This assignment concerns with an examination of business ethics in British Airways (BA) and in particular an event that happened in August, 2005, with it catering contractor, Gate Gourmet. The objectives of this assignment are; To examine BAs approach towards CSR. To find out whether Gate Gourmet employees are part of BAs stakeholders. To explain the negative outcomes. To explore ethical issues involved in the particular of outsourcing. The objective of this assignment will be achieved by using the theories, concepts of business ethics. This assignment discuss about a number of interesting conclusions on how BA handles CSR and the particular problem with Gate Gourmet. (2.1) Introduction about British Airways (BA) The British Airways group consists of British Airways plc and a number of subsidiary companies including British Airways Holidays Limited. British Airways is one of the worlds leading airlines with a network that provides passenger and freight services to 149 destinations in 72 countries.   In 2004/05, British Airways carried over 35 million passengers and nearly 900,000 tonnes of cargo.   Its airline network is centred on the United Kingdom, where 85% of its 47,500 workforce is based. The main activities of British Airways Plc and its subsidiary undertakings are the operation of international and domestic scheduled air services for the carriage of passengers, freight and mail and the provision of ancillary services. British Airways airline network generates economic value by meeting the demand for business travel, by offering vital arteries for trade and investment, as well as providing leisure travel opportunities for individuals and families. There vision is to become the worlds most responsible airline and they have recognized that this is best achieved by ensuring their flying activity is sustainable. They have developed a series of strategic goals and plans to deliver that vision. There are several reasons why British Airways chose to engage in CSR.   The first is because it is a tool to help achieve the companys long term strategic goals in providing growth opportunities around Heathrow airport.   Secondly, improving business efficiency and reducing costs through waste and energy programmes provided a strong business case for CSR.   The company also thought CSR could help them with risk management by identifying risks to health, safety and environment that could hinder its opportunity to attract investors and grow the business.   Lastly, it recognised that it needed to act to enhance its corporate reputation, and customer feedback (both corporate and from the general public) revealed that they expected British Airways to do the right thing. Its approach has also been influenced by the recognition that airlines generate major social and economic benefits, but also have significant impacts on the environment (for example, through noise and air quality) and on communities around airports. In developing its Climate Change Programme, British Airways has had to overcome several challenges, some of which still remain.   The political environment in which the company operates harbours many different views on climate change and there are different levels of awareness surrounding the topic.   This means that airlines take different views, as do governments.   In the UK the government (through its White Paper on aviation) has made it clear that expanding the aviation industry will mean that the industry has to deal with environmental issues.   However, the governments of many European countries have not gone through such detailed consultation and analysis and may not have such clarity on the issue.   Another challenge to the company was the cost implication of taking action when others within the industry were not Ref: www.britishairways.com 2.2. Triple Bottom Line Concept (TBL) Triple bottom line was introduced by Elkington in 1999. Triple bottom line is a unique approach to community development that integrates environmental stewardship, sustainable development and social justice.  The triple bottom line is made up of social, economic and environmental the people, planet, profit phrase was coined for shell by sustainability. Triple Bottom Line efforts are as varied as the organizations and communities in our state wide network. This approach is flexible and innovative, creating new economies that protect, enhance and restore natural, cultural, historic and community resources. The Triple Bottom Line standards for: Economic (Profit). Social (People). Environment (Planet). Economic (Profit) This is more about making a honest profit than raking a profit at any cost it must be made in harmony with the other two principles of People and Planet. While many major corporations used to sneer at the idea of a Triple Bottom Line reporting system. With a positive flow on effect to their suppliers. Because supply chains are also accountable to the overall impact of a company. A narrow concept of economic sustainability focuses on the economic performance of the corporation itself: the responsibility of management is develop, produce and market those products that secure long-term economic performance for the company. This includes a focus on strategies that lead to a long term rise in share price, revenues and market share rather than short term explosions of profits at the expense of long term viability. Social (People) This is also known as Human Capital. It really just means treating your employees right, but furthermore also the community where your business operates. In this part of the Triple Bottom Line model, business not only ensures a fair days work for a fair days pay; but also plods back some of its gains into the surrounding community through sponsorships, donation or projects that go towards the common good. The key issue in the social perspective of sustainability is that of social justice .Despite the impressive advances in standards of living that many of us have enjoyed; there are growing disparities of income and wealth within many countries. In a more just an equitable world, living standards will lead to more economic prosperity. Environment (Planet) This is Natural Capital. A business will strive to minimize its ecological impact in all areas from sourcing raw materials, to production processes, to shipping and administration. Its a cradle to grave approach and in some cases cradle to cradle i.e. taking some responsibility for goods after theyve been sold for example, offering a recycling or take back program. The importance of Triple Bottom Line reports are: Economic gains: Jobs created, Small businesses started or expanded, environmentally responsible industries engaged, Poverty reduced or alleviated. Social improvements: people of collar or low-wealth engaged; educational systems improved; racism dismantled; power shared. Environmental stewardship: land/water resources protected; working lands locally-owned; water quality improved; native plants and herbs propagated. 2.3. Economic responsibilities of BA. Aviation must be perfection within the overall climate framework with open access to cost-effective market-based instruments including carbon trading, Clean Development Mechanism(CDM) credits and potentially credits from Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD) in developing countries. British Airways is playing a leading role within the aviation industry in developing and promoting proactive solutions for post-Kyoto aviation policy, through the International Air Transport Association (IATA), Association of European Airlines (AEA) and a dedicated group of companies called Aviation Global Deal (AGD).The AGD proposal is a sector-wide policy based on carbon trading that requires all airlines to participate on an equal basis. Carbon allowances are allocated in part by auctioning, with the resulting revenue being collected by a UN body and directed to specific environmental projects in developing countries. In this way the proposal meets both the competitiveness and common but differentiated responsibilities (whereby developed countries agree to take the lead on addressing climate change) principles. 2.4. Social responsibilities of BA. British Airways offer support in the form of funding, free flights, excess baggage, merchandise, cargo space and fundraising events. Our priorities for support are Education  and  Youth  Development, Supporting our Colleagues, Environment, Sustainable Tourism and Heritage. The Community and Conservation started in 1984; they provide these projects in and around the world. Many of BA staffs are involved in Charity work in and abroad as the part of the management they support their staffs in their charitable work. Few charity services mentioned below. 1) The BA community volunteering awards. 2) BA giving scheme. 3) BA fun runs for Cancer research UK. 4) Action for street children volunteer programme. Change for Good is promoted by onboard announcements and the showing of an onboard video. There are  nearly 2,400 British  Airways cabin crew members who co-ordinate the onboard collections from our customers. There are also collection points across British  Airways offices so our colleagues can also donate to the programme. E.g.: UNICEF. 2.5. Environment responsibilities of BA. BA was the first airline to report to the Environmental performance. This can be called one of the strategies of BA. They help in minimizing the cost travel more effectively. They minimize their impact through the latest technology including airframes, engines and alternative fuels.To achieve this strategy they have developed a Comprehensive programme, Climate change there overall strategy is to ensure we fully contribute our share of global carbon dioxide emission reductions by 2050 Waste there focus on reducing, reusing, recycling and responsible disposal of there waste Noise reducing our impact on local communities around the airports they serve. Air quality improving air quality for communitys around the air ports they serve. (2.6) Conclusion British Airways use the approach of CSR They truly believes now they have all the vital elements in place to deliver their overall vision of becoming the worlds most responsible airline. Ref: www.britishairways.com BAs approach towards corporate social responsibility using Triple Bottom Line. Triple bottom line was introduced by Elkington in 1999. According to him TBL represents the idea that business does not have just one single goal-namely adding economic value but that it has a extended goal set which necessitates adding environmental and social value too. To understand the components of sustainability which represents its necessary for to us to examine them separately. The components are divided into three. Economic. Social. Environmental. ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE When there was a dispute between Gate Gourmets and BAs there were 100,000 passengers Whose flights were cancelled they suffered because the tickets which the passenger purchased were not reimbursed nor transferred to the other flights. The strike had cost almost  £50 million which brought disturbance to more than 100,000 passengers. Thousands of employees who went on strike which caused disturbance to the passengers as the flights were cancelled. This was the season where the BA went on tremendous loss and decided to hire unofficial labour. As this strike went on the middle of the summer season were in there were lot of passengers who had to travel back home and were N number of visitors coming in ,this also could be a reason for BA to go under Bankrupt. The employees were aware of the situation and they had a upper hand to the situation. There were few Employees who even argued We have a very hardworking and professional workforce, the current situation is very much an exception to that rule. And the restructuring plan resulted in thousands of job losses. But the restructuring undoubtedly led to financial success. However, they have to still work on full loyalty of its employees to match its renewed financial success. SOCIAL PERSPECTIVE British Airways offer support in the form of funding, free flights, excess baggage, merchandise, cargo space and fundraising events. Our priorities for support are The Community and Conservation started in 1984; they provide these projects in and around the world.Many of BA staffs are involved in Charity work in and abroad as the part of the management they support their staffs in their charitable work. Few charity services mentioned below. 1) The BA community volunteering awards. 2) BA giving scheme. 3) BA fun runs for Cancer research UK. 4) Action for street children volunteer programme. Change for Good is promoted by onboard announcements and the showing of an onboard video. There are  nearly 2,400 British  Airways cabin crew members who co-ordinate the onboard collections from our customers. There are also collection points across British  Airways offices so our colleagues can also donate to the programme. E.g.: UNICEF. ENIVORNMENT PERSPECTIVE BA was the first airline to report to the Environmental performance. This can be called one of the strategies of BA. They help in minimizing the cost travel more effectively They minimize their impact through the latest technology including airframes, engines and alternative fuels. To achieve this strategy they have developed Comprehensive programmes: Climate change there overall strategy is to ensure they fully contribute their share of global carbon dioxide emission reductions by 2050. Waste focus on reducing, reusing, recycling and responsible disposal of waste. Noise reducing our impact on local communities around the airports they serve. Air quality improving air quality for communities around the airports they serve. Ref: britishairways.com 3. Explanation about Gate Gourmets is also part of BAs stakeholder? Using Corporate Social responsibility theory. Before we discuss about this matter we should understand the definition of whom the employee is and who the contractor is. Employee is a person who is hired to provide services to a company on a regular basis in exchange for compensation and who does not provide these services as part of an independent business. Contractor is a person or business which provides goods or services to another entity under terms specified in a contract. Unlike an employee, a contractor does not work regularly for a company. Contractors are not a part of company shareholder, how ever it has been argued that contractors are not legitimate shareholders of a client. However, in order to find out whether this is the case; the concept of salience of stakeholders will be used. Stakeholder is a Person, group, or organization that has direct or indirect stake in an organization because it can affect or be affected by the organizationHYPERLINK http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/organization.htmlHYPERLINK http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/organization.htmls actions, objectives, and policies. Stakeholders are shareholders, customers, creditors, suppliers, employees, government and community of an organization. Gate Gourmet is a food supplier for British Airways. This means they are the stakeholder of BA. Stakeholder plays a vital role for an organization. It is very important to assess stakeholder importance in order to manage these stakeholders. Mitchell et al (1997) suggest there are three key relationship factors likely to determine the importance of stakeholders.It also called Salience of Stakeholder; Power The conceived ability of stakeholder to influence organizational action. Legitimacy Whether the organization conceives the stakeholders actions to be readable, proper or appropriate. Urgency the degree to which stakeholder claims are conceived to call for immediate actions. Ref: britishairways.com Pedro Longart, Lecture hand-outs, 2009 4. Negative outcome of the Strike. There were lot of negative outcomes arises due to this industrial disputes at British Airways (BA).In order to understand this problem we have to analyse about the shareholders. In this dispute Gate Gourmet staff became key players. The negative outcomes of this strike are given below; The British Airways had cancelled over 700 flights and lost an estimated  £30 million as a result. 100,000 passengers had their journeys disrupted. With some delayed for days. It can be concluded BA strike happen because the importance of Gate Gourmet employee became key players. They were not put their attention. Because of that problem was arising. Ref: britishairways.com 5. Ethical Issues involved in the modern practise of outsourcing Ethical issues of involved in modern practice of outsourcing explained by sheffi in 2005 and Emmelhainz and Adams in 1999.Sheffi said that companies should never rely in contractor should either have used more than one creator. Otherwise, the relationship should be closer so that the companies knows more about what contractors is doing. He also explained that some firms, like banks have been criticised for poor customer support from outsourced Indian called centers, also Nike and Gap have been attacked over the sweatshops allegedly operate by some of their suppliers. He said outsourcing an activity does not mean it is no longer a firms problem. Emmelhainz and Adams said as there is a shift towards global supply and competition individual firms appear to be faced with the prospect of an extend chain of responsibility. Once it was perfectly acceptable to argue that the ethics of a firms suppliers, or a firm impact on its competitors, was simply not any of its business, this no longer seems to be the case. Hence, corporation have to take their ethical responsibilities much more broadly. Therefore the supply chain has to be used as a conduct for ethics management and regulations. (Pedro Longart, Lecture hand-outs, 2009)

Sunday, January 19, 2020

Of mice and men & An inspector calls Essay

â€Å"Socialism is a philosophy of failure, the creed of ignorance and the gospel of envy, its inherent virtue is the equal sharing of misery†- Winston Churchill Winston Churchill thinks that socialism is a philosophy of failure however John Steinbeck author Of Mice and Men & JB Priestly author of An Inspector Calls would say that capitalism creates the failure in society not socialism. Both authors create a microcosm to show us how society was like at the time. This is called social realism. The two texts show how rich people are quick to take advantage of the poor and the vulnerable. The book of mice of men was written in 1937, by John Steinbeck. This book is set in 1930’s California, Salinas valley also known as south Soledad. It was after the war and after the Wall Street crash this is when everybody lost their jobs and became bankrupt. Everyone moved to South California to look for jobs on ranches to fulfil the â€Å"American dream â€Å"another reason why everyb ody had to move to South California is because of the Dust bowl also known as the Dirty Thirties due to the fact it was during the 1930’s. The dust bowl is a period of ruthless dust storms which affected America’s agriculture and ecology. The dust storms were caused by a long period of drought and years of bad farming techniques that caused such things as soil erosion. The weak soil then travelled majority of the United States leaving a thick fog of dust, the drought and erosion of the Dust Bowl affected 100,000,000 acres (400,000 km2) that centred on the panhandles of Texas and Oklahoma and touched adjacent sections of New Mexico, Colorado, and Kansas. In many areas, over 75% of the topsoil was blown away by the end of the 1930s there were severe long-term economic consequences of the Dust Bowl, farmers couldn’t harvest any more crops because the soil was ruined. Counties that had experienced the most considerable levels of erosion saw a greater decline in agricultural land values the per-acre value of farmland decreased by 28% in high-erosion counties and 17% in medium-erosion counties. Furthermore banks failed in the Dust Bowl region with a higher rate of frequency than in the rest of the country, it was har der for farmers to gain access to the credit they needed to buy capital to shift crop production. Consequently Farmers & business owners had to move away because they had no more money. Steinbeck became sensitive towards the people in California. He  wants to help marginalised citizens. Steinbeck created this book to show how reality was to fight against the media. It was a miniature representation of something in this case 1930s California, his book was based on social realism. To show everyone real life as it truly is. He presents the protagonists & antagonists in the world. He is not concerned about idealizing things and making them beautiful when they are not. He is displaying real life as it is for political, social and moral reasons. Steinbeck wanted to indicate the socialism is better than capitalism. The play An Inspector Call is set in the city in Northern Midlands in 1912 and was written J.B Priestly. The book is set just before the First World War. (1911-1914) and that it’s the period history that Priestly chose to set his play on. Priestly play was written just after the World War 2 I think this is to show capitalism is wrong and how socialism i s right he portrayed this by showing Britain at its worst I think he wanted to influence socialism into the new, younger generation. He did this to avoid further war & conflict by showing how capitalism is wrong. The antagonist in of mice of men is Curley. This is because of his habit to think he is better than everyone. Curley’s appearance shows that he is a replica as his father; this is shown when both characters were introduced. The Boss was introduced first in chapter 2 â€Å"he wore high heeled boots with spurs to prove he is not a labouring man† spurs are the sharp silver circles at the bottom of boots; spurs are spiky and sharp this could suggest that the boss is dangerous and he shows this through his boots furthermore these specific boots are more expensive than a typical ranch hand could afford this could propose that the boss is to superior to help the workers like an socialist boss would, this is shown because the boots aren’t practical for workers because they are high heeled and we can’t work in high heeled boots. Curly was introduced in the same chapter(2) â€Å"Liked t he Boss he wore high heeled boots† Curly shows authority through the clothes he wears the quote â€Å"high heeled boots† show he wants to appear taller because of the fact he is short In addition it can also suggest that he is not like the ordinary ranch workers but more superior; He wants everyone else on the ranch to look up to him and treat him with higher authority. Curly is intimidated by Lennie because he is bigger and loftier than him and he tries to act immense around Lennie to show him that he is not scared. This makes us dislike him because we know  that even though Lennie is big and tall he wouldn’t hurt anyone out of meanness. Curley mirrors an animal when he spots Lennie smirking at him â€Å"his hands closed into fists, he stiffened into a crouch† describe him like an animal about to prance. Animals attack would be vicious and dangerous; reason why Curley is an antagonist because of the fact he acts like a scary ferocious and treacherous animal, this would affect the readers because nobody like violent nasty animals. Steinbeck may have done this so the readers of the novel or the people watching the play would change their views are realise that if they are capitalist how wrong it is due to the fact how Steinbeck exaggerated Curlys attitude. Curlys closed fists could mean he is hiding his fear from Lennie by shutting it out Curly has competition with every guy taller than him because he thinks they’re a threat to him. Curly picks on the marginalised characters and doesn’t even care for his dead wife but for revenge on Lennie this shows how cold hearted he is and since Curly is one of the main reprehensive of the capitalists in the book Steinbeck is showing us that the capitalists are the bad guys to the affect that they won’t even have a tad bit of sympathy for even their wife. Protagonists in Of mice and men are George and Lennie this is because they are always there for each other the quote â€Å"I got you to look after me and you got me to look after you† this shows that they got a lot of love for each other. George and Lennie have a brotherly relationship. George is the big brother & Lennie is the little brother. †a few beans slipped out of the side of Lennie mouth, George gestured with his spoon. The gesture which he did is something a mother would do to a child. We like Lennie because he is like a child. In Chapter 1 (pg21) the following quote stated by George to Lennie quite a few times is, â€Å"Say it over to yourself, Lennie, so you won’t forget it.† Here George is treating Lennie like a child because he can not remember anything and must be constantly reminded of what he has to do. Lennies childish behaviour is also shown in the last chapter when Lennie says â€Å"You ain’t gonna leave me, are ya George?† (p. 98) He is fearing, as a little child would, that he will be left all along, and both he and George know that Lennie cannot be on his own we admire Lennie because he is fair and treats everyone the same. We don’t know a lot about Lennie’s background. We don’t know what happened to Lennie’s family and parents and why he didn’t live with them, just that he was looked after by his Aunt Clara. George is  Lennies only family apart from his Aunt, We think of Lennie as a protagonist because he is like a child and everyone likes children we like George because he looks after Lennie and doesn’t take advantage of him to the effect which he treats him like his own family. George could have left Lennie when ever he wanted to. George could’ve left Reed and let the authorities take lennie so he would run off, start somewhere new with a better job and won’t have Lennie as a interference anymore, the fact that George helped Lennie escape shows that they really care for each other and he is like an big brother to him. We are shown Lennies childish behaviour at the start of the book we know he likes to touch soft things, He has a dead mouse in his pocket so he can stroke it as there walking along, When George sees this he treats him like a child and makes Lennie throw it away â€Å"give it here!† This shows there father-son like relationship as the harsh to ne he used when he asked Lennie for the mouse. The harsh tone is shown by the explanation mark. Other protagonist in of mice and men are candy and crooks. Candy is discriminated for being old and disables, readers will feel sympathetic towards him especially after Carlson killed Candy’s only companion his dog; Crooks is a Negro and is discriminated for his race. In the great depression black people suffered as much as white people and in majority of the cases even worse. They left the southern states hoping to find work majority of the time they won’t come across any and they would experience racism. Along with candy crooks character is used by Steinbeck to show the effects of discrimination. This time the prejudice is based on race, crooks is not allowed in the bunk house with the white people he is only allowed in Christmas and that is because he pays a collateral of fighting for their entertainment. The protagonist in of mice and men are coincidently the marginalised characters. Steinbeck shows us that the protagonists in the book are also the socialists. The protagonists in An Inspector Calls is the inspector this is because he feels remorseful for Eva Smiths’ death .In addition the Inspector is the only character in the play who didn’t do something to result in her dying. We can relate the inspector to the ghost from the Christmas tale â€Å"Ghosts of the Christmas past†. The ghosts try to change Ebenezer Scrooges behaviour the same way the inspector is trying to change the Birlings family manners and make them more socialists characters. Sheila is a protagonist because she changed from a  self-centred mummy’s girl to a mature and generous young lady. This is because the inspector showed that what she was did was wrong. In addition we like Sheila because she took full responsibility for Eva Smith’s death and the fact that she played a part towards it. Even after they realised that the inspector was actually a counterfeit and that they are not in trouble she felts guilty. Likewise Eric Sheila’s brother also changed his views he was already had socialists views at the start of play unlike Sheila however at the end of the play both characters took full responsibility and changed their capitalist views to socialist views. However Eric didn’t take full responsibility and tried to put some blame on Mrs Birling his mother. This is because Mrs Birling took no blame for the death of Eva smith. The fact that Mrs Birling takes no liability makes us dislike her similarly Mr Birling takes no blame and is actually relieved that the inspector didn’t come for him but his family this shows how subterranean he is, he didn’t mind the fact that his family might be in danger, only the fact that he is out of harm’s way. Mr Birling selfish and arrogant behaviour makes us dislikes him. Steinbeck and priestly are trying to demonstrate to us that the protagonists are socialists and that socialists are much loving caring and they are people we tend to like however capitalist are supercilious big headed and they are they bad people in life. Social mobility is when the poor attempt to ascend up to the prosperous however the prosperous push them down. This is shown in both texts of mice of men and an inspector calls. A classic example would be Eva smith from An Inspector Calls. She is a working class girl who committed suicide. This is because every time she stepped up or if something good happened to her the Birling residents pushed her down. Eva smith asked Mr Birling for pay raise however he said no for the reason that he claimed that if he paid her more he would have to increase the tax of the goods he sells the quote â€Å"They wanted 25 shilling I refused of course†. Proves my previous points point that capitalist are cold hearted, Mr Birling simply could have used his own money o pay the tax instead of increasing it however he is a capitalist and capitalists only care for themselves therefore to the only way to dispense of this problem was to sack Eva smith from work. The word â€Å"of course† shows u s that there was nothing to discuss and the answer to the raise is moderately perceptible. Mr Birling cares about himself and the profit he gains by getting rid of Eva smith, he  kept himself happy but didn’t realise he just ruined an innocent girls life. Sheila Mr Birling’s daughter took advantage of her father’s power. The quote â€Å"so you used the power you had†¦ to punish the girl just because she made you feel like that† shows the reader Sheila’s selfish attitude. The facts that Sheila got the girl fired because she was prettier than her shows us how priestly is trying to tell us that capitalists are snobby and bigheaded. They will also do anything they want to get what they want even if it’s distressing someone else. Mrs Birling refused to help pregnant Eva smith and said that it’s her fault and that she can’t do anything. This is also known as laissez faire which means not to interfere. The French word means let them do as they will. Mrs Birling doesn’t interfere with Eva Smiths life. This is an example of Mrs Billing’s cruel capitalistic behaviour. In my opinion I thinks that Mrs Birling is more capitalists then all the characters because of the fact she never had to work for money and she was born rich. Unlike Mr Birling who had to work for his money. They are the reason why society is failing and people can’t get jobs. It is ironic because they say they worked to get where they are now, but when one works, and gets rich the capitalists pus them down. In of mice and men, George and Lennie start of working in a ranch in southern California called Salinas’s valley. They are working together so they can get enough money to fulfil the â€Å"American Dream†. The American dream is to own a farm, live on it and the food that grows on the farm as well as the money they make of it. This represent the Jefferson ideal of agrarian society, Thomas Jefferson promoted an agrarian society for the United States of America during the nation’s early formation. Jefferson wanted America to live on farms and live on it and the food that grows on it. Curly the boss’s son abuses his power; he picks on Lennie and controls his wife, curly s capitalistic behaviour led to the failure of the American dream. Lennie had a dream and his dream was to live of the â€Å"fatta the land† the quote shows that Lennie wants to rise up and live and work for himself one day. Curley smashed lennies dream, he paid no attention o his wife so his wife tried communicating with Lennie. This eventually led to her death as she let Lennie touch her hair even after is past of killing soft thing like the puppy and mice. I think Steinbeck isn’t killing socialism but showing us how capitalism is killing it. Steinbeck and priestly show socialism and capitalism through the setting in texts.  Steinbeck shows the bunk house as underprivileged this shows how socialists are inadequately looked after along with their poor living conditions. Whereas priestly shows the Birlings house in the midlands as prosperous this represents the capitalists by saying that they can afford high-quality possessions. The bunk house is minute and un attractive the quote† white washed† shows that he people are deprived, the colour white shows that they can afford any other coloured paint because the colour white is unadorned as well as tedious , this must be why it’s cheap. The colour white is dull, coincidentally so are the people of the bunk house. Another interpretation could be that the boss was being cheap and indolent and that he didn’t want to spend allot of money on the workers, during the 1930s it was the time of the great depression this is when the country went into debt, people cut down on spending money this explains why the boss bought white paint as it must of been inexpensive. Steinbeck uses alliteration in the quote â€Å"white washed â€Å"to exaggerate the glumness of the colour white. The quote â€Å"floor un painted† manifests that the workers have a poor living condition. The quote indicates that not only was the boss cheap enough to get white paint, he couldn’t be bothered to buy enough to paint the floor. This shows that the boss is lazy and doesn’t care about his workers; the quote â€Å"small square windows† indicates that the windows are minuscule. The small window can indicate to their lack of freedom. The word small can mean petty and insignificant this implies that their freedom is negligible and trivial. The quote â€Å"solid door with a wooden latch† suggests that they are restrained within the bunk house. The word â€Å"solid† means hard and strong this can imply that the door is blocked off. The words wooden latch mean that they’re locked in this could imply that they’re trapped in the ranch house and in Steinbeck’s microcosm. The boss, curly and his wife live in another house however this house to superior to be explained in the story. The story is seen through George and lennies eye s perhaps Steinbeck is saying that they are not good enough to see their house. Steinbeck carefully controls the setting in Of mice and men. It is especially lucid in the last and first chapter, both chapters mirror each other you can see this because they start of at the Salinas River and end their journey there to. Steinbeck describes the nature vividly at the start and the end. The nature resonates with the theme of the novel. We can observe the relaxed aggression of nature. This  shows that everything Lennie did meant no harm and it was all natural. â€Å"Lennie never done it in meanness â€Å"the story foreshadows events from the start to the end. The conversation between George and Lennie reflects the firsts and last chapter. Their story goes round in circles like a hamster’s wheel it doesn’t take them anywhere. The ranch house may be poor and shabby however the Birling’s house is in the city in comparison to the country side. The house is advanced than a ranch house. The stage directions give an effect that it’s a comfy home. The lights were â€Å"pink and intimate† the colour of the lights reflected the mood of the play. This is shown in the book at the start whilst the family were celebrating the daughter engagement. When they shade of the lights was a â€Å"rose tinted glow† the family were still celebrating the daughter’s engagement to Gerald croft. The mood of the play was still romantic thus the use of warm coloured lights. The word rose means a shrub with prickly stems and a fragranced flower. A sore symbolizes love priestly may have used this to give a passionate sensation however roses have thorns so bristly, jagged and treacherous, Steinbeck might have been for shadowing the upcoming danger. The word glow means to emit light and heat devoid of flames. Priestly chose this to exaggerate the love and heat in the air emitted by the characters. Glow can also mean having a feeling of wellbeing or satisfaction. Something socialists can never feel because they are never happy due to the capitalists. However the atmosphere changes when the Inspector arrives and the lights are â€Å"brighter and harder† as if he is welcoming the family in to reality. The word â€Å"bright â€Å"is to emit intense light in comparison to the soft light emitted at the start of the play. The word â€Å"harder† means solid, firm and hard. Priestly may be indicating that things are getting ugly metaphorically. It can also mean an unkind feeling causing pain and sorrow of hardship it is as if priestly for shadows upcoming events through the illumination. The bright lights can resemblance the lights from one are getting interrogated by a policeman. The furniture in the Birling’s house is extravagant like the family itself the quote â€Å"solid furniture† means that the furniture in the Birling’s house won’t break because it’s expensive. A rich family tends to have expensive possessions in comparison to the bunk house in Of mice of men. There is only one woman in Of mice of men and that is Curleys wife. During the 1930s women were only used as housewives in  addition men only used them as sex objects this is sexism was more accepted in that centaury. Men paid no affection for their wife’s this is shown in of mice of men when curly would wear a â€Å"glove full of Vaseline† to keep his hand soft to pleasure his wife. This quote shows how curly has no respect for his wife and the fact that he goes around telling the people in the bunk house that shows how arrogant he is. Curly represents how men were in the 1930s in Steinbeck’s microcosm and due to his behaviour we can comprehend how egotistical capitalist men were in that time period. Women are discriminated in the book Of mice of men as well as during the 1930’s.in the time john Steinbeck lived women were only used to serve men they were not supposed high in regards. Women still tried to yearn for a better future by exploiting men. Curlys wife paraded around the bunk house wearing too much make up as well as stimulating clothing with red nails; red ostrich feathers and red mules. Steinbeck uses imagery to portray curlys wife as provocative that and the fact that she goes around the bunk house flirting with the workers and begging for attention. Curlys wife has no other way to communicate to somebody but through her body language. He quote â€Å"red finger nails , red mules , red ostrich feathers† plays a big part in her personality as she is wearing lots of the colour red, it could indicate blood and fire. These two features represents the devil. The devil brings danger so this could mean that curlys wife brings jeopardy. The colour red is intense a nd eye grabbing the fact that she wears these a lot of this colour could mean she wants all eyes on her and that she is seeking attention, implies that she is seeking love and desire both she is need of, she can only do this by wearing bright colours and dressing a certain way and through her promiscuous behaviour. Steinbeck’s preliminary portrayal of curls wife shows her to be a mean and seductive temptress. She is mirrored to eve in the garden of Eden. The same way eve seduced Adam. Curlys wife crushed George and lennies dream of owning a farm. Even curlys wife needed to dream of being a Hollywood actress, her beauty would have helped her fulfil her dream, and this made her vulnerable since she was not successful. The final chapters describe her as innocent. Steinbeck is shows us that everyone who are portrayed as bad may have some humanity in them. Steinbeck also refers to other women in of mice and men. Apart from the fact she’s not mentioned in the novel the girl from weed plays a big part as she is the  reason George and Lennie had to escape from the job in weed. We can conclude that the girl from weed and curlys wife are both temptations that encourage lennies curiosity and of course Lennie could not resist. Similarly how Lennie couldn’t resist to pet soft objects which comfort him ranch men could not refuse to accept the fact that they need to be seeking immediate gratification. Susy brothel households Clearly prove my point that women were just objects in the hands of men; this makes them victims of society. Many of the ranch men go there and participate in bordellos, its crystal clear that women were surplus and that they have no importance. In fact curlys wife’s name is not even mentioned in the novel. Steinbeck does not mention her name for the reason that he want to emphasise curlys ownership over her. He is depicting her as property rather than an actual person. She was the one who caused most the tension on the ranch the reason why her husband was always cranky. In spite of all the malevolence connected with women, Steinbeck also gives us an affectionate vision of Aunt Clara whose position is taken by George. Therefore in the novel we are made conscious that there is some good in women, on the other hand it seems as if that there can never be any harmony in the world were women are present because once eve contaminated Adam in the garden of Eden the world was tainted forever. There are not any main similarities between the three women in an inspector calls. Mrs Birling and Eva smith are from completely different spectra’s such as economical, social and personality apart from their gender there is no traits they share in common, Sheila is in between the two characters she is not as snobby as her callous mother neither is she un compassionate, however her social status is fa r away from Eva smiths. Sheila and Mrs Birling are related however they are more distanced. In this era it is common for parents to be distanced from their children, so as you can envisage in sibyls case she barely knew her own daughter. At the start of the play we see a much closed minded view of Sheila; she is like a Paris Hilton of the Victorian era because she is described as a shallow airhead. she gets bewildered over material goods. Especially when her fiancà © presented her an engagement ring. She called it â€Å"wonderful† and saying things like â€Å"look mummy isn’t it a beauty†. Sheila is in her twenties and his calling her mother â€Å"mummy† this is a classic example of her girlish, childish and immature behaviour. These two evidences prove my point as well  as going against it. They are figurative later on in the play, when Sheila’s impression change. Firstly she gives Gerald back her ring, claiming she wants to begin her relationship once again. Secondly she refers to her mum as â€Å"mother† and sees her mother in a new radiance; Sheila is un impressed and ashamed of her flippant and unsympathetic attitude. Sheila is initially very eager about her engagement and loves Gerald heaps; however she is not obtuse and knows he was doing something suspicious over the summer. Even though she didn’t know exactly what he was doing. She did mention it when they were drinking at the start of the play in an amiable approach† except for all last summer when you never came anywhere near me and I wondered what happened to you† despite the fact that Steinbeck does not let us know from the start that Gerald is up o no good we can guess it’s something to do with Eva Smith. Even before the characters do, priestly uses dramatic irony to emphasise this. Sheila is upset however she is not surprised by Gerald’s affair. As I mentioned earlier Sheila hands Gerald back the ring requesting to start the relationship anew. This shows her developing maturity towards the end of the play. During the final scenes Sheila is more peaceful and distinguished in manner as she is not delivering puerile hysterics that would have been expected from her at the star of the play. She knows she really loves Gerald deeply and she can’t complete life without him, however Sheila does not completely forgive him this is showing how independent she can be. Perhaps priestly is showing us that capitalists are stupid and immature and socialists are mature. Mrs Birling is one malicious piece of work. She is even more capitalists & cold hearted than her husband. She takes no accountability for the death of Eva Smith and tries to blame it on Eva by calling her â€Å"impertinent†. She seems to believe that since she is wealthy she is not to blame- typical capitalist behaviour. What’s even worse than her sickening uprightness is the fact that she is deluded. She believes everything she says is right. Mrs Birling is very comfortable with her situation in civilization. well we think she is, her bitter cold demeanour and her sour manner give of very little of her ambitions. She does not have a high status as the crofts however unlike her husband she in not ashamed and has no burning infatuation to be so. She is already her husband’s â€Å"social superior† and seems to be satisfied with that. It is ironic how Mrs Birling is the social superior as it is normally the husbands whom have a  higher status. she is very aware as well reprimanding her husband for the plain triviality of thanking the cook â€Å"Arthur you’re not supposed to say such things† as if a simple deed as thanking the chef is disgusting. Not only does Mrs Birling put herself on plinth, but she has aloofness for everyone else she even patronises her own offspring’s, treating them younger than they are. She finds the inspector extremely despicable as if she is exceeding the law when she says â€Å"I beg your pardon† according to her if she does not fond of the inspector’s attitude he would have to leave premises. Our image of Mrs Birling is pessimistic from the very start and only got worse she is representational of capitalism. The play was set out to expose and demoralize capitalism. Despite the fact that Mrs Birling is seen as the enemy of socialism, Eva smith is portrayed as its champion she is more of a representation rather than a character, seeing as though she doesn’t actually appear in the play itself Eva smith is very important. Edna and Eva are very alive as they are both working class women earning minimum wage, they hardly appear in the book this might be because of the fact priestly is showing that they are to low class to appear in the play. Both priestly and inspector Goole are similar because they support Eva smith while everyone apart from Mrs Birling felt sorry for her death, the inspector and priestly are the only one who haven’t done nothing wrong to lead to her death. At the start of the play The Birling family is drinking champagne and port both luxurious drinks priestly uses irony to show the rich capitalists are drinking expensive drinks however working class socialists Eva smith is drinks toxic disinfectant. Social Darwinism is the concept of survival of the fittest in this case it’s about women Steinbeck and priestly are shown that because women are women they are not significant enough for their power to increase this is shown through Curlys wife in On mice and men And Sheila in An in inspector calls, it is shown through curlys wife because of the fact she is a house wife and is nothing but a object to her husband. It is shown in an inspector calls when Sheila would try to talk but her father s tops her and tells her to go to her room and let the men talk. Both examples show haw the men think they there better and that women don’t deserve to rise up or speak for them self. In conclusion I realised that Both Authors Steinbeck and Priestly disagree with Winston Churchill’s statement about how socialism is a philosophy of failure, they do this by  writing about social mobility and how there isn’t any because the capitalist always push the socialists down. In addition both authors clearly state the protagonists and antagonists, coincidently the protagonists were socialists and the antagonists were capitalists, the authors are telling the readers that Capitalists is pessimistic and socialists is optimistic. They also show us how capitalists have tended to be rich and have nicer houses this is because they don’t share the money resulting in the socialists living in meagre bunk houses. The authors also discreetly mention social Darwinism and that only certain people rise to the top theses certain people are the c apitalists because they are loaded. Both authors created a microcosm to show us how society was like at the time. This is called social realism. The two texts show how rich people are quick to take advantage of the poor and the vulnerable .

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Medicare Funding Crisis Essay

As the newly appointed chief of staff I have been tasked with responding to a proposal for reducing Medicare expenditures by enrolling participants in HMO. I understand that we have some key questions must be addressed and that we must justify our position on either economic efficiency or equity grounds. Outlined below are some of the questions that must be answered in order address this issue properly. Is Medicare in a state of crisis? Are you aware of the various policies that are being enacted from each state to state regarding the qualification of Medicare? Medicare is funded by the federal government and each state is responsible for operating the Medicare program as well as the local Medicaid programs. However, premiums have increased for Medicare and also, the coverage has changed in the past few years requiring people to purchase additional supplemental Medicare policies – this is difficult for elderly that have fixed incomes. If the elderly are unable to purchase Medicare, they will go uninsured. The Medicare system is double-funded. It is funded by the taxpayer (federal dollar) as well as the premiums being collected. But, in being double-funded, the coverage is still not as high as most private insurance companies making them appear with less quality. Are radical measures necessary to preserve the program? This is a very interesting question and you will have to take a more subjective approach to answering it. I don’t believe there are radical measures that must be taken to preserve the program because it is funded through two divisions – the federal government (taxpayer) and the premiums being collected. However, the cost of providing the medical services is much higher than the cost being collected. Perhaps a more responsible approach would be to evaluate the cost of the medical services being provided and standardize a cost table among all insurance companies including Medicare. For example, a client may be seen by a physician for a regular check-up and that provider is only allowed to charge Medicare $65. If a client came to that same physician with a private insurance policy, that physician is allowed to charge the private insurance $120. What happens then is that the service under the Medicare payment is not provided in the most quality manner (although, physicians will argue this) because they are getting paid much less by Medicare rates. The physician may spend more time, energy, and commitment to a private paying client because they are getting almost twice the amount of money from the private insurance. It is a matter of motivational service-delivery. The radical measures that need to take place are increasing Medicare rates of reimbursement or mandating lower rates of private insurance to neutralize the risk of receiving poor quality services. How is Medicare funded now? The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), a branch of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), is the federal agency that runs the Medicare Program and monitors Medicaid programs offered by each state. (In 2011, Medicare covered 48.7 million people. Total expenditures in 2011 were $549.1 billion. This money comes from the Medicare Trust Funds. (Medicare.Gov (2010). About OTPN. Retrieved from http://www.medicare.gov/about-us/how-medicare-is-funded/medicare-funding.html) Medicare is funded by the federal government (the taxpayer’s federal taxes out of their paychecks). People may believe that social security pays for Medicare, but it doesn’t. If less people are working, less money is going into the federal â€Å"pool† of money to distribute to Medicare. The nation is at an all-time high for reported unemployment – that means that there is millions of dollars not going into the fund account for Medicare. However, just as many people are seeking medical coverage from Medicare – an imbalance occurs. Why do the elderly feel that Medicare is an insurance program, not a welfare program? Is this perception accurate? Some elderly, in my opinion, believe that Medicare is an insurance program that they are entitled to. During the Great Society movement in the 40’s-60’s, various governmental programs were designed to provide citizens entitlements to human services and welfare needs. The Medicare and Medicaid coverage was designed to provide those that do not have any means to pay for health care a way in which they could maintain their health needs – a right that the government and society has deemed every person should be entitled to; their health. So, depending on the culture, upbringing, and personal philosophy.

Friday, January 3, 2020

Essay about Exelon Case Study - 946 Words

OVERVIEW Exelon Corporation is an electricity generating and distributing company headquartered in the Chase Tower in the Chicago Loop area of Chicago. Exelon came into existence in October 2000 after the merger between two large utilities: Unicom corp., the parent company of ComEd (Illinois) amp; PECO Energy Co. (Pennsylvania). Unicom owned Commonwealth Edison. Exelon has 5.4 million electricity customers and serves 485,000 natural gas customers in the Philadelphia suburbs. Exelon is the largest nuclear operator in the U.S. and the 4th largest power generator (in GW) of the nation. Question amp; Answers Question 1: How will branding benefit Exelon power? Answer: Exelon’s plan to brand Environmentally Preferable Power†¦show more content†¦Answer: Points to be considered before choosing any option: Companies are used to purchasing electricity as a commodity and focusing only on price. * Currently companies have only been purchasing between 5% - 10% of their needs in renewable energy. * EPP is something intangible that customers seem reluctant to pay a premium for. Many purchasers argue that they cannot bill their own customers for being environment friendly. * Energy represents a huge expense for Industrial customers, which are accustomed to negotiate purely on price. * If price premium is added for EPP then most likely the current share of renewable energy will not change amp; will continue to be 5% - 10 % or maybe a little more after the brand is establish. However there is still a risk of brand dilution due to blend of EPP amp; traditional power. Based on all the above points I’ll suggest not to add any price premium amp; rather choose Option 2 i.e., Increase the market share by offering the same price amp; running awareness campaigns so that societal pressure can be created to force the companies to go for clean energy. Another option can be to price EPP at a slightly higher (but lower than the intended Margin) price so that Industrial customers don’t see a veryShow MoreRelatedAlzheimer s Disease : A Disease That Affects More Elderly People906 Words   |  4 Pagesto stop the progression of Alzheimer’s. Researchers, with the help of doctors have been successful finding a way to slow down the progression, but not completely stop it. Although Alzheimer’s is a disease that affects millions of people, with new cases being diagnosed every day, researchers are still working frivolously to find a cure. In 1906, Dr. Alois Alzheimer saw differences in the brain of a woman that passed away from a bizarre illness in the brain. 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Thursday, December 26, 2019

Hiroshi Sugimoto as a Popular Japanese Photographer Free Essay Example, 1250 words

In the Seascapes series, there is an inherent romanticism that prevails on the viewer. A series of black and white pictures that are horizontally divided seems to be abstract at first glance but gradually it appears to be horizon and ocean at different timings. Langford et al. state, Hiroshi Sugimoto s austere and highly refined presentation of the landscape . According to Burno, Sugimoto s seascapes are framed in a particular way that makes it appear as a film screen. Seascape series portrays transitional stages of horizons. Particularly his seascapes and theater series is visualized as a rectangular architectonics, with careful light it emerges as a series of absorbing geometry projection (Burno 52). In the Seascapes series, Sugimoto goes beyond the traditional idea of time and reveals intangibility and transgression as its very nature. He suggests that time is floating between receptions and production while urge us to think time as the event. The photographs are inclined to ent ertain the idea of bifurcation and indiscernibility that exist between actual and virtual of Deleuze s crystal image. Sugimoto visualized the idea of crystal-image. Time plays with the opposites. We will write a custom essay sample on Hiroshi Sugimoto as a Popular Japanese Photographer or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/page A memory that is associated with going back to the roots is another interpretation of Sugimoto s images. A photograph captures a particular moment but Sugimoto s interprets time as a duration that makes the viewer feel that it is still but moves at the same time (Wittmann).

Tuesday, December 17, 2019

An Annotation of Section 24 of Walt Whitmans Song of Myself

An Annotation of Section 24 of Walt Whitmans Song of Myself Walt Whitmans Song of Myself is a vision of the American spirit, a vision of Whitman himself. It is his cry for democracy, giving each of us a voice through his poetry. Each of us has a voice and desires, and this is Whitmans representation of our voices, the voice of America. America, the great melting pot, was founded for freedom and democracy, and this poem is his way of re-instilling these lost American ideals. In this passage from Song of Myself Whitman speaks through his fellow man and speaks for his fellow man when his voice is not socially acceptable to be heard. The links from the poem below are best read in order from the beginning of the poem to the†¦show more content†¦Through me forbidden voices, Voices of sexes and lusts, voices veild and I remove the veil, Voices indecent by me clarified and transfigurd. I do not press my fingers across my mouth, I keep as delicate around the bowels as around the head and heart, Copulation is no more rank to me than death is. I believe in the flesh and the appetites, Seeing, hearing, feeling, are miracles, and each part and tag of me is a miracle. Whitman begins by creating a contradictory image of himself. On one hand he relays an egotistical representation by alluding that he is the center of the universe, a kosmos, of Manhattan the son, almost a deistic type of character. Whitman also describes himself as not being above any one person, woman or man, an obvious contradiction to his previous representation. His God-like persona is depicted in human terms, physical qualities that all humans possess. Whitman creates this contradiction to show his belief that he is everything, but is only this way because everything is a part of him. He represents himself as part of a wholeemdash;nature, mankind, and the universe are all a part of him. By being everything in nature and nature being a part of him, Whitman has the power to become the voice of nature as a whole. He speaks for nature and mankind when they do not possess the power to do so. Whitman is the voice of all. The doors are symbolic of imagination, and he is saying to unlock ones imagination. This